Effect of Holding Time on Bonding Strength and Joint Interface Microstructure of Vacuum Diffusion Bonded Dissimilar Austenitic Stainless Steel - Titanium Alloy Joints


  • A. Negemiya Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore
  • Tushar Sonar
  • S. Rajakumar




Vacuum diffusion bonding, Holding time, AISI 304 steel, Ti6Al4V alloy, microstructure and bonding strength


In this investigation, the effect of holding time on the microstructure of joint interface and bonding strength of vacuum diffusion bonded dissimilar austenitic stainless (ASS) – titanium (Ti) alloy joints were investigated. The dissimilar joints of ASS - Ti alloy were developed using the holding time of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes in a vacuum chamber at a temperature of 900⁰C and pressure of 14 MPa. The bonding strength of ASS – Ti alloy joints was evaluated using the ram tensile test. The microhardness survey was done perpendicular to the joint interface. The microstructure of the joint interface was analyzed using optical microscopy (OM). The evolution of intermetallic compounds at the joint interface was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure of the joint interface was correlated to the bonding strength of joints.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Malayappan S. and Narayanasamy R. (2003), Barrelling of Aluminium Solid Cylinders during Cold Upset Forging with Constraint at one end, Intl. Jnl. of Material Science and Technology, Vol. 19: 507 - 511.

Xie H., Chen X., Lu Y., Zhang M. and Zhang Q. (2021), Forming mechanism and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir lap welds of 304 austenitic stainless steel to a Ti6Al4V alloy, Mater. Testing vol. 63: 889-894, 2021.

Negemiya A., Shankar A., Guruprasad B., Prakash B., Dineshkumar S., Batu S. and Rajakumar S. (2021), Investigation on Processing Maps of Diffusion Bonding Process Parameters for Ti-6Al-4 V/AISI304 Dissimilar Joints, Adv. in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2021: 1-9.

Negemiya A., Rajakumar S. and Balasubramanian V. (2019), Diffusion bonding of a titanium alloy to austenitic stainless steel using copper as an interlayer, SN Applied Sciences, vol. 1: 1128.

Negemiya A., Rajakumar S. and Balasubramanian V. (2019), High-temperature diffusion bonding of austenitic stainless steel to titanium dissimilar joints, Materials Research Express, vol. 6: 066572.

Negemiya A., Rajakumar S. and Balasubramanian V. (2019), Optimization of Ti-6Al-4V/AISI304 diffusion bonding process parameters using RSM and PSO algorithm, Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15: 1037-1052.

Kirik A. and Balalan Z. (2013), Weldability of AISI 304 to Copper by Friction Welding, Mater. Testing, vol. 55: 442-447.

Cavdar F., Yasar H., Cavdar K. (2020), Effect of the welding parameters on the surface morphology of resistance spot welded AISI 304 stainless steel joints, Mater. Testing, vol. 62: 739-743.

Velmurugan C., Senthilkumar V., Sarala S., and Arivarasan J. (2016) Low temperature diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-4V and duplex stainless steel, Jnl. of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 234: 272–279.

Eroglu M., Khan T. and Orhan N. (2002) Diffusion bonding between Ti -6Al -4V alloy and microduplex stainless steel with copper interlayer, Materials Science and Technology, vol. 18: 68–72.

Balasubramanian M. (2015), Development of processing windows for diffusion bonding of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy and 304 stainless steel with silver as intermediate layer, Trans. of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 25, 2932–2938

Özdemir N. and Bilgin B. (2009), Interfacial properties of diffusion bonded Ti-6Al-4V to AISI 304 stainless steel by inserting a Cu interlayer, Intl Jnl of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 41: 519–526.

Zakipour S., Samavatian M., Halvaee A., Amadeh A. and Khodabandeh A. (2015), The effect of interlayer thickness on liquid state diffusion bonding behavior of dissimilar stainless steel 316/Ti-6Al-4V system, Materials Letters, vol. 142: 168–171.

Thirunavukarasu G., Patel V., Kundu S. and Alankar A. (2019), Diffusion bonding of Ti6Al4V and SS 304 with Nb interlayer. Materials Performance and Characterization, vol. 8: 1008-1031.

Kumar R., Gupta R. K., Sarkar A. and Prasad M., (2022), Vacuum diffusion bonding of α titanium alloy to stainless steel for aerospace applications: Interfacial microstructure and mechanical characteristics, Materials Characterization, vol. 183: 111607.




How to Cite

A. Negemiya, T. Sonar, and R. Selvarajan, “Effect of Holding Time on Bonding Strength and Joint Interface Microstructure of Vacuum Diffusion Bonded Dissimilar Austenitic Stainless Steel - Titanium Alloy Joints”, JME, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 073–078, Jun. 2022.