Establishing Relationship Between Welding Current and Weld Metal Deposition Rate for Solid Wire in Submerged Arc Welding Process


  • Bashkar R Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu- 608002, India
  • Balasubramanian V Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu- 608002, India
  • Mani C Quality Management Division, Consolidated Contractors Company Ltd (CCC), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates



Submerged Arc Welding, Carbon Steel, Solid Wire, Weld Metal Deposition Rate, Productivity, Heat Input, Current Density


                Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process is used to weld large, heavy metal deposition jobs with critical requirements, and this metal joining process alone is used to weld approximately 10% of the deposited weld metal worldwide. Any augmentation in productivity of SAW process, will immensely benefit the welding industry, as this process is widely used on variety of common metals and alloys. This paper focusses on establishing relationship between welding current and productivity (in terms of weld metal deposition rate as an index), for a given filler wire diameter. Productivity rates of most common solid filler wire sizes were studied, at different preset current values, covering full current range through bead-on-plate experiments. At each preset current value, the bead was first optimized for acceptable visual quality, by varying arc travel speed and voltage, then wire feed rate (of acceptable beads) was noted. The current density, heat input and corresponding weld metal deposition rate were calculated for establishing relationships. The established relationships can be effectively used, to estimate productivity from the preset current values, for a given solid wire diameter.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Parmar R.S., Welding Processes and Technology, Chapter 8, Pages 204-232, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2015.

Ogborn J., ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, Submerged Arc Welding Chapter, ASM International, 1993, pp.618-641.

Swain R. A. American Welding Society (AWS) Welding Handbook, Ninth Edition Volume 2, Welding Processes Part 1, N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, 2004, pp.256-302.

Thakker H., A review study of the effect of process parameters on weld bead geometry and flux consumption in SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) process, International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research, 2014.

OM H. and Pandey S., Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in Submerged Arc Welding process, Sadhana Vol. 38, No. 6, 2013, pp.1369–1391.

ITW Welding (Miller, Hobart) “Submerged Arc Welding Equipment and submerged Arc Welding Consumable” pp. 46-63.

Lincoln Electric, “Submerged Arc Product and Procedure Selection,

ESAB Technical Handbook “Submerged Arc Welding” 2017, pp.59-66.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II Part C, SFA 5.17 (Identical with AWS Specification A5.17), The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Miller Electric Product Data Sheet of Summit Arc 1000/1250 also available at

file:///C:/Usersuser/Pictures/Downloads/Miller%20Summit %20Arc%201250%205060.pdf by Miller Electric Mfg. LLC, USA

Gunaraj V. and Murugan N., Prediction and Optimization of Weld BeadVolume for the Submerged Arc Process, Part 1, AWS Welding Journal, 2000, 286-294.

Chai C.S. and Eagar T.W., The Effect of SAW Parameters on Weld Metal Chemistry, AWS Welding Journal, 1980, pp.93-98.

ITW Welding international conference discussions in Taiwan, Germany and follow up discussions among Global ITW Welding - SAW team members.

Visit/demo/meeting findings of ITW Welding with ITW customers and potential customers in Middle East Asia regions using/evaluating improvement methods in SAW quality/productivity.

Das E.R. and Kumanan S., ANFIS for prediction of weld bead width in a submerged arc welding process, Journal of Scientific & industrial Research, Vol. 66, 2007, pp.335- 338.

Roy J., Majumder A., Rai R.N. and Saha S.C., Study the Influence of Heat Input on the Shape Factors and HAZ width during Submerged Arc welding, Indian Welding Journal, Vol. 48, No.1, 2015.




How to Cite

Bashkar R, Balasubramanian V, and Mani C, “Establishing Relationship Between Welding Current and Weld Metal Deposition Rate for Solid Wire in Submerged Arc Welding Process ”, JME, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 024–033, Jun. 2020.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >>