• Padmashree Anand Centre for Materials Research and Technology Utilization, RVCE, Bangalore, India
  • Kulkarni R S Centre for Materials Research and Technology Utilization, RVCE, Bangalore, India
  • Dwarakadasa E S Professor of Metallurgy (Retd.), IISc., Bangalore – 560012, India


Vymanika Sastra, ancient material, Panchaloha, property-specific material , copper alloy


There are references to ancient aircraft materials and processing methods in ancient Indian scientific works like Samarangana Sutradhara and Bharadwaja’s Vymanika Sastra. Vymanika Sastra (Science of Aeronautics) presents details regarding unique property specific advanced materials for an ancient aircraft in archaic Sanskrit. A few attempts have been made to decipher and follow details given in this treatise to repeat the experiments and recreate some of the property - specific materials.

The purpose of this research is to repeat the making of one such material described in the text, reproduce those conditions and check whether there is validity of the claimed properties. An attempt was made to reproduce a copper based golden yellow, soft, light and strong alloy, ‘Panchaloha’ as mentioned in the scripture. The methodology adopted, analysis of the microstructures of the samples prepared and certain properties of Panchaloha obtained, are described in this paper.


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How to Cite

Padmashree Anand, Kulkarni R S, and Dwarakadasa E S, “STUDIES ON PANCHA LOHA - AN INSIGHT INTO BHARADWAJA’S VYMANIKA SASTRA”, JME, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 145–148, Sep. 2013.